Upon completion of the source code compilation the resulting (binary / machine code) file is now able to be executed upon the CPU type (/family) it was compiled upon.
Since different CPUs have different instruction sets, code compiled upon a machine with a CPU from say Intel, is incompatible with that of an ARM CPU.
However, it is generally possible to compile the source code upon a preferred target CPU platform to allow it to run (with perhaps a few tweaks to the code for the target platform). This conversion process is know as Porting.
The Operating System may require special configuration to allow an executable file to be run, such as using a .exe extension in Windows, or by using the execute bit on the permissions of a Unix/Linux system.
In general an executable file is more commonly known as a program.